The Lord had made a covenant with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but now He makes a covenant with all of the people of Israel as a nation. This is what we call the Old Covenant or the Law of Moses. Chapter 19 begins as Israel is camped at the base of the mountain of God, or Mount Sinai. We are treading on holy ground as we enter our text. All Scripture is God-breathed, but some texts are weightier than others, and this is one of the weightiest texts in Exodus and possibly all of the Old Testament. May we approach our text on bended knee as we marvel at the awesomeness and power of the Lord.
At such an important moment Moses records the very day they arrived at the mountain, in the third month. Moses, the Lord's mediator, goes up the mountain in verse 4, and God speaks to him. First, the Lord, Yahweh, identifies that He is the one speaking. Second, the Lord reminds Israel of what He had done for them. He destroyed their enemies and brought them here as an eagle cares for her young. But third, the Lord adds a condition, sometimes referred to as a conditional covenant. The Lord says, ‚Äúif you will indeed obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my treasured possession among all peoples, for all the earth is mine; 6 and you shall be to me a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.‚ÄĚ The people reply, ‚ÄúAll that the Lord has spoken we will do This is a continuation of the covenant the Lord had made with Abraham. Through the Old Testament, we see that Israel failed to keep the Mosaic covenant. This covenant will show Israel they can never keep the Law fully, & it will drive many to the Lord for salvation, as evidence of the Lord's faithfulness to His covenant & to elect