According to Arabist scholar Alfred Guillaume it is probable that the first Jews in Arabia came in Cir. 722 B.C. when the Assyrians invaded Israel and carried them away to Mesopotamia.1 Therefore they settled in Arabia in connection with the fall of Samaria in 722 B.C. Guillaume is also certain that "in the first and second centuries A.D., Arabia offered a near asylum" to the Jews who had been victimized by the "utterly ruthless" Romans.
Numbers of Jewish and Christian settlements were established in different parts of Arabia, both spreading Aramaic and Hellenistic culture. Christianity had already been introduced into Southern Arabia and was flourishing by the time of Muhammad. The heretical works such as the gospel of Barnabus was present there and were flourishing by the time of Muhammad. The chief southern Arabian Christian centre was in Najran, where a relatively advanced political life was developed. Jews and Judaized Arabs were everywhere, especially in Yathrib, later renamed Medina.